Advisory Board on Biotechnology (Biotekniikan neuvottelukunta)
The Advisory Board on Biotechnology (BTNK) is a consultative body of experts in issues related to bio- and gene technology appointed by the Government for a term of three years. It aims to promote cooperation between authorities, researchers and operators in biotechnology and in particular gene technology, and monitors developments and research in gene technology as well as its health and environmental impacts. In addition, The Advisory board on Biotechnology monitors and promotes international cooperation in biotechnology and takes into account the ethical considerations of gene technology.
Bioethics studies ethical issues emerging from life sciences, medical research and heath care.
Board for Gene Technology (Geenitekniikan lautakunta)
The Board for Gene Technology (GTLK) is the competent authority in Finland regarding the use of genetically modified organisms in accordance with the Gene Technology Act (377/1995). The Board operates in conjunction with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
Committee for Public Information in Finland (Tiedonjulkistamisen neuvottelukunta)
The Committee for Public Information (TJNK) is an expert body attached to the Ministry of Education and Culture. It follows progress in various fields of research, arts and technology and the development of knowledge in Finland and abroad. The Committee for Public Information coordinates and promotes the publication of information. TJNK is one of the two bodies behind this website.
Conflicts of interest (sidonnaisuudet)
Sources of financing, conflicts of interest or other commitments relevant to the conduct of research are announced to all members of the research project and reported when publishing the research results. Researchers also refrain from all research-related evaluation and decision-making situations when there is reason to suspect a conflict of interest.
The concept of authorship under copyright is related to the form of the work. The original author is a person whose creative input has influenced the creation of a work, for example a publication or an art work, in a form that is externally observable. Authorship can largely be agreed in accordance with the Copyright Act. The form of the work and the ideas it contains may sometimes be difficult to separate and it is therefore also best to agree copyright separately. Because copyright protects the form of the work, an abstract idea cannot generally receive protection through copyright. From the point of view of responsible conduct of research, however, authorship extends beyond the form of the work to also cover its content and the idea. For example, borrowing a research idea or published text without citing the original source can be seen as misappropriation or plagiarism, also when the text is not quoted word for word as a copy of the original.
Corresponding author (yhteyskirjoittaja tai -tekijä)
Corresponding author refers to a person who manages interaction with the publisher. Their contact information is provided with the published article, and it is their responsibility to ensure that information flows between the publisher and other authors. Use of the term varies in different disciplines and a corresponding author may also act as a guarantor.
Disregard for the responsible conduct of research (piittaamattomuus)
In Finland, disregard for the responsible conduct of research is classed as a violation of the responsible conduct of research. It is manifested as gross negligence and carelessness at different stages of the research process.
Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK (Tutkimuseettinen neuvottelukunta)
The Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK is a body of specialists as appointed by the Ministry of Education and Culture on the proposal of the scientific community. TENK was founded by decree to handle ethical issues on scientific research and to promote research integrity. TENK is one of the two bodies behind this website.
Ghost author, ghost writer (haamukirjoittaja tai -tekijä)
This term can refer to two different things: A ghost writer or ghost author can be a writer who has entered into an agreement to write on another person’s behalf as an un-named author. Sometimes, the term is also used to refer to a person who should be named as an author due to their contribution but whose name is missing from the list of authors. Neither practice is in line with responsible conduct of research.
Gift/honorary/guest authorship (lahjakirjoittaminen tai -tekijyys)
Honorary authorship refers to a practice in which authorship is given “as a gift” to people whose contribution does not entitle them to be named in the list of authors. Sometimes, gift authorship is given in the hope of a gift in return, but the recipient does not always even know that they have been named and their name is only added to the list of authors to add scientific value to the publication. Sometimes, the situation is linked to a power dynamic, for example between a postgraduate student and a senior researcher. Giving authorship is not in line with responsible conduct of research. It is important to be aware that people who are named as authors in a publication are responsible for its content even where violation of RCR is suspected.
Guarantor (vastaava kirjoittaja)
Guarantor refers to an author who takes main responsibility for the content of the whole publication. The guarantor is especially important in multi-disciplinary or otherwise extensive co-publications in which individual researchers cannot be assumed to be able to evaluate the work of all the authors. The role is usually taken by the head of the research group or another researcher in a senior position. Each researcher is responsible for ensuring that the research community also complies with responsible conduct of research practices on authorship issues. In research groups, it is important to ensure that those at the start of their research careers are aware of the binding rules of the research community.
This term particularly refers to writers used for medical research who act as a technical editor of the manuscript. They have not usually made any other contribution to the research and are not named as authors.
Misappropriation is misconduct and it refers to the unlawful presentation of another person’s result, idea, plan, observation or data as one’s own research.
National Advisory Board on Social Welfare and Health Care Ethics (Valtakunnallinen sosiaali- ja terveysalan eettinen neuvottelukunta)
The purpose of The National Advisory Board on Social Welfare and Health Care Ethics (ETENE) is to discuss general principles in ethical issues in the field of social welfare and health care and concerning the status of patients and clients as well as to publish recommendations on them.The Advisory Board submits initiatives, publishes statements and provides expert assistance, prompts public debate, and disseminates information on national and international ethical issues in the field of social welfare and health care.
National Committee on Medical Research Ethics (Valtakunnallinen lääketieteellinen tutkimuseettinen toimikunta)
The primary role of the National Committee on Medical Research Ethics (TUKIJA) is to serve as an expert on research ethics and advise regional ethics committees in matters of ethical principle related to medical research, and to provide training. TUKIJA is also responsible for issuing opinions on the ethics of clinical drug trials that are to be run in Finland unless this task is delegated to a regional ethics committee. TUKIJAs duty is also to evaluate the conditions for establishing a biobank. Upon request, TUKIJA also issues opinions on proposals that have been previously rejected by regional ethics committees.
Open co-authorship, open collaborative writing (avoin yhteiskirjoittajuus tai -tekijyys)
In open collaborative authorship, several authors work on a research publication collaboratively in an open network. Often, all the collaborators are named in the list of authors.
Peer-review label (vertaisarviointitunnus)
The peer-review label is a trademark registered by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies which Finnish science publishers can use to denote articles and books they have published that have undergone a scientific peer-review process. The label shows that peer review of the publication in question has been carried out in line with the quality and ethical requirements of the international scientific community.
Plagiarism is misconduct. Plagiarism, or unacknowledged borrowing, refers to representing another person’s research plan, manuscript, article or other texts or parts thereof, visual materials or translations as one’s own. Plagiarism includes direct copying as well as adapted copying, which does not indicate the original author with a proper citation.
Predatory publications (saalistavat julkaisut)
Predatory publications refers to journals or other publications that appear to be scientific publications but fail to uphold the responsibilities of a science publisher, such as peer review. Their operations are based on aggressive marketing and charging the authors for fees.
Publication forum (Julkaisufoorumi)
Publication Forum (Julkaisuufoorumi, JUFO) is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Research misconduct (vilppi)
Research misconduct refers to misleading the research community and often also to misleading decision-makers. This includes presenting false data or results to the research community or spreading false data or results in a publication, in a presentation given in a scientific or scholarly meeting, in a manuscript that is intended to be published, in study materials or in applications for funding. Furthermore, misconduct refers to misappropriating other researchers’ work and to representing other researchers’ work as one’s own.
Responsible conduct of research, RCR (hyvä tieteellinen käytäntö, HTK)
RCR is an abbreviation of responsible conduct of research. It means procedures that are endorsed by the scientific community, i.e. integrity, general meticulousness and accuracy in conducting research and in recording and presenting research findings and in evaluating research and related findings, ethical data acquisition methods and respecting the work of other researchers. TENK monitors compliance with RCR in Finland and has drawn up guidelines for Responsible conduct of research and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland.
Science communication (tiedeviestintä)
Science communication is information about science. It is the exchange of information and interaction regarding the information obtained from research, research results, scientific ways of thinking and methods, and the theoretical basis of scientific disciplines within and beyond scientific communities.
Self-plagiarism (itseplagiointi, itsensä plagiointi)
Self-plagiarism is a violation of the responsible conduct of research and refers to publishing the same research findings multiple times ostensibly as new results. However, it is completely permissible to use one’s own, previously published, texts again provided that where the text in question was previously used or where it was published is referred to or cited in one way or another. Researchers must also cite their own published works on the same terms as other people’s research, and attention must also be paid to this in CVs and lists of publications, for example regarding translated versions. If it is suspected that a researcher is exaggerating their own scientific and scholarly achievements in a CV or its translation, in a list of publications, the issue may be addressed as an alleged violation of responsible conduct of research in line with the guidelines of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity.
Substantial contribution (merkittävä panos)
Many guidelines on authorship recommend that the right to be named in the list of authors only arises if the contribution towards the research has been substantial. However, the definitions of substantial vary depending on the discipline. In particular fields, it is typical for only actual writing of the publication to qualify people to have their names added to the list of authors, while in others, gathering material, analysis, conceptualising the research or work related to the research process requires being named in the list of authors. In some fields, a person’s contribution can be considered substantial if their experience, knowledge, skills or other creative input has led to the scientific discovery presented in the publication.